Jason Collins wrote an excellent, concise article on a Malthusian meta-trap, in which K-selection (not Collins's term) only provides temporary escape. High technological-economic growth follows from quality-preference (Collins's term) in family size (i.e., when people invest a lot of time and effort into mate selection and education, famine and poverty can be defeated). Unfortunately, this era of plenty begins favoring quality-preference as people who are unwilling to choose mates or invest time in raising children have their children surviving at increasingly high rates. This in turn kills the environment for prosperity, throwing the economy back into the Malthusian trap.
Easy to question the assumptions, but harder to disprove the prediction, based on the recent past.